List of Abbreviations
Osteological Element or Character
1cav First caudal vertebra
ach Anterior ceratohyal
af-h Articular facet for hyomandibula
af-pal Articular facet for palatine
af-q Articular facet for quadrate
afo Anterior fontanel
alp Anterior lateral process
amp Anterior medial process
an-f Anal fin
anar Anguloarticular
anp Anterior nuchal plate
aoca Aortic canal
aogr Aortic groove
bb2 Basibranchial 2
bb3 Basibranchial 3
bo Basioccipital
br Branchiostegal rays
br1 Basal radial 1
br10 Basal radial 10
br2 Basal radial 2
br3 Basal radial 3
br8 Basal radial 8
ca-f Caudal fin
cb1 Ceratobranchial 1
cb5 Ceratobranchial 5
cl Cleithrum
clri Cleithral ring
cmb Coronomeckelian bone
cp Coronoid process
cr Complex radial
dbr Dorsal branched rays
de Dentary
dhh Dorsal hypohyal
do-f Dorsal fin
dp-cl Dorsal process of cleithrum
dpr Dorsal procurrent rays
dr8 Distal radial 8
dsr Dorsal simple ray
eb1 Epibranchial 1
eb4 Epibranchial 4
ecp Ectopterygoid
enp Entopterygoid
ep Epural
epo Epioccipital
ex Extrascapular
exo Exoccipital
fafo Facial foramen
fm Foramen magnum
fr Frontal
glfo Glosopharyngeal foramen
h1 Hypural 1
h2 Hypural 2
h3+4 Hypurals 3+4
h5 Hypural 5
hb1 Hypobranchial 1
hb2 Hypobranchial 2
hs Haemal spine
hyp Hypurapophysis
ih Interhyal
io1+2 Infraorbitals 1+2
io3 Infraorbital 3
io4 Infraorbital 4
io5 Infraorbital 5
iop Interopercle
le Lateral ethmoid
lp-pttsc Lateral process of posttemporosupracleithrum
lp1 Lepidotrichia 1
lp3 Lepidotrichia 3
lp8 Lepidotrichia 8
lp12 Lepidotrichia 12
mca Mesocoracoid arch
me Mesethmoid
mnp Medial nuchal plate
mp-pttsc Medial process of posttemporosupracleithrum
ms Mandibular symphysis
mto Metapterygoid
mx Maxilla
na Nasal
nar Neural arch
ns Neural spine
ns4 Neural spine of fourth vertebra
obal Osified Baudelot’s ligament
op Opercle
opfo Optic foramen
ors Orbitosphenoid
os Os suspensorium
p-co Process of coracoid
pal Palatine
pas Parasphenoid
pb1 Pharyngobranchial 1
pb3 Pharyngobranchial 3
pb4 Pharyngobranchial 4
pch Posterior ceratohyal
pe-gi Pelvic girdle
pec-f Pectoral fin
pel-f Pelvic fin
pfo Posterior fontanel
ph Parhypural
pmx Premaxilla
pnp Posterior nuchal plate
pop Preopercle
pp Posterior process
pp-cl Posterior process of cleithrum
pr1 Proximal radial 1
pr2 Proximal radial 2
pro Prootic
pt Pterotic
pte Pterygiophore
pte 1 Pterygiophore 1
pts Pterosphenoid
pttsc Posttemporosupracleithrum
pul+ul Preural 1+ural 1
q Quadrate
r1 Rib 1
sco Scapulocoracoid
sh-gi Shoulder girdle
si Sinus impar
sn Supraneural
soc Supraoccipital
socp Supraoccipital process
sp Sphenotic
spe Spine
spt Spinelet
suos Superficial ossification
tp-tr Transformator process of tripus
tp4 Transverse process of fourth vertebra
tp5 Transverse process of fifth vertebra
tp6 Transverse process of sixth vertebra
tr tripus
trfo Trigeminal foramina
uh Urohyal
un Uroneural
uptp Upper pharyngeal tooth plate
vbr Ventral branched rays
vc Vertebral centrum
vc1 Vertebral centrum 1
vc5 Vertebral centrum 5
vc6 Vertebral centrum 6
vc7 Vertebral centrum 7
vcok Ventral keel of coracoid
vgfo Vagal foramen
vhh Ventral hypohyal
vlcv Vertical lamina of complex vertebra
vo Vomer
vpr Ventral procurrent rays
vsr Ventral simple ray
wc Weberian complex
adp-cl Anterior dorsal process of cleithrum
cc Compound centrum - includes vc2-vc4 (fused)
pdp-cl Posterior dorsal process of cleithrum
vc-cl Ventral crest of cleithrum